Hubbard ® claimed to have written the unpublished book Excalibur between 1932 and 1938. It is described as Hubbard"s first philosophical statement--a foundational treatise of Scientology ®. The manuscript allegedly revealed how Hubbard distilled the common denominator of existence down to one word: "Survive!" Though the spin surrounding this unpublished manuscript is a trifle thick ("stolen by agents of foreign intelligence services who wished to appropriate those ideas for political ends"), Hubbard did persist with his "Word" in Dianetics ®: The Original Thesis, a book first published in 1948 under one of its many titles.  The survive concept threads its way throughout Hubbard's subsequent writings.
Hubbard professed to have begun his research in 1932. This was the year he dropped out of the George Washington University. About six years after the completion of Excalibur, Hubbard became involved with Jack Parsons of the Agape Lodge of the OTO in Pasadena, CA. Though Hubbard apparently denied any formal magical training, he obviously convinced Parsons of his competence. He partnered with Parsons in an advanced set of rituals called The Babalon Working in 1946.
The OTO grade of Magus requires that the aspirant publish a book that explains his philosophy:
Hubbard named his manuscript Excalibur after the legendary magical sword of King Arthur. The sword has very specific meanings in occult symbology, particularly in Aleister Crowley's magickal system and the occult material from which Crowley's system is derived. I'll discuss the known occult significance of the sword shortly.
Hubbard said that
Excalibur contained the basic premises upon which Scientology
evolved. It is no surprise therefore that the "religious"
cross symbol of Scientology represents those basic premises. First,
let's take a look at how Hubbard and Scientology describes the cross.
I was unable to establish any connection between the root word meaning of cross (OE "rood") and "Light of the Great Fire." However, "The Light of the Great Fire" is mentioned in The Emerald Tablets of Thoth, a work alleged to have been written by Hermes. Hermes is believed to be an incarnation of the Egyptian God Thoth; his work is the ultimate source for the Western Hermetic tradition:
The inclusion of the cross at this date is somewhat of an enigma. Hubbard wrote a bulletin on 23 August 1965, titled Abbreviations and Symbols of Dianetics and Scientology. The Scientology cross is not depicted in that issue. Was the cross injected retroactively in Scientology's time line?
Crowley's magickal training system was based upon the secrets of a Rosicrucian order called The Golden Dawn. They believe that the biblical King Solomon was an accomplished magician and that he controlled the demonic realm using ritual magic. Solomon's rituals have allegedly been preserved and handed down through secret societies since Solomon's time. (Some occultists believe that Solomon's magic came from the earlier biblical figure of Enoch, who received his magical training from alien gods.) The magical rituals involve both banishing (evoking) "lower" entities and conjuring or invoking "higher" entities that empower the magician to execute his will.
Crowley's ceremonial magick trains the aspirant to be an effective magician through a series of grades. Each of the lower grades develops a component of an overall magical skill set. Various symbolic "weapons" or "tools" represent the skills. These weapons culminate in a personal "magical temple" that emulates the legendary Temple of Solomon.
The "forging" of the sword is taught at the grade of Zelator (2°=9°). It represents the analytical faculty or the "reason" of the magician.
Interestingly, current Super Power ® promotion headlines this concept: "FORGING AHEAD TOWARDS A CLEARED PLANET." Super Power is Scientology's next ploy for global conversion; it includes various processes designed around Hubbard's ethics technology.
Note that the first definition of the Scientology cross above comes from a Flag ® Order. This type of issue originated after the formulation of Scientology's quasi-military, elite organization called the Sea Organization. The Sea Organization was formally initiated in 1967, following Hubbard's expulsion from Rhodesia. This definition is the earliest legitimate reference to the cross that I have been able to locate. The Scientology cross is placed at the top of the Sea Org coat of arms ® and is inextricably associated with the Sea Organization.
Hubbard defined ethics as "reason" and declared that "Man's greatest weapon is his reason." He wrote the bulk of his ethics technology ca. 1965--1966, and he used his newly formed Sea Organization to beta test and fine-tune its fundamental control mechanisms.
Magically speaking, the Sea Org was formed to fulfill Crowley"s recipe for the Magus:
The early escapades of the Sea Project (precursor to the Sea Org) involved looking for hidden treasures, based on Hubbard's past life recall of their whereabouts. Crowley recommended that his magicians test their past life recalls using objective means. According to former members who were on these voyages, Hubbard's success was less than stellar.  Regardless, there is an incontrovertibly direct and fundamental relationship between Crowley's training system and Scientology's Bridge ®. This broad subject will be addressed in other articles.
The purpose of the Sea Organization is to "get ethics in on the planet." Hubbard's recruitment tactics include the assertion that Sea Org members are reincarnated members of an elite group of loyal officers that saved the planet from the evil Xenu--thus the motto, "We come back." Hubbard organized the Sea Organization in the same period as he developed the "secret" OT 3 materials. OT 3 mythology conveniently provides a "spiritual" reference for Scientology's recruitment tactics.
The Religious Technology Center ® (RTC) holds and registers the trademarks of Dianetics ® and Scientology. Chaired by David Miscavige, the RTC is the most senior executive organization of the Church of Scientology International. Their function is to preserve the integrity of Scientology technology and its marks worldwide.
On the RTC site is a series of the more common Scientology symbols, including a Scientology cross ®; this cross is shown at the top left of RTC's pages, and is also included in a bank of other Scientology images for which RTC holds marks.
Remarkably, RTC displays a nonstandard cross to indicate the brand under which Scientology is copyrighted. A quick examination will reveal significant differences from the usually depicted Scientology cross.
The differences are:
Hubbard's works do not display RTC's mark of the cross--his technology is generally marked with either the Dianetics symbol ® or the snake-and-double triangle symbol ®. Scientology advanced organizations do bear the Scientology cross symbol. (Example: the cross on top of the blue buildings in Los Angeles, CA.)
Scientology explains the RTC's cross:
The components of the cross that create the flower effect are the diagonal rays, not the vertical and horizontal arms. Obviously, Hubbard did not write this description, as the cross was not in use during his life. The description above cannot possibly be applied to the earlier cross. Is "Flowery Cross" the next version of the Golden Dawn's "Rose" cross? Has Scientology formally affiliated with a Rosicrucian or other freemasonry society?
This of course again raises the obvious question of whether any aspect of Scientology bearing the Scientology cross is legitimately owned by Scientology today. Hubbard's cross does not appear on the list of marks owned by RTC.
The diagrams below show several other "weapons" that the magician develops in Crowley's system. We will address the dagger as it closely relates to the sword. The sword is used for the tougher magickal jobs; the magician chooses between the sword and the dagger based on the degree of severity of the situation he is trying to resolve.
Scientology's ethics technology includes Hubbard's brand of justice. Hubbard prescribed his justice system to go into play when the individual could not "get his own ethics in," according to Hubbard"s ethics formulas.
justice measures are most publicly evident through the work of Scientology's
Office of Special Affairs (OSA). OSA coordinates all of Scientology's
litigation and intelligence activities: they are "getting ethics
in" in Scientology's "external" environment. Internal
justice measures are now the ultimate responsibility of the Religious
The original Scientology cross expresses the control methods "Hubbard-the-Magus" devised to complete his own magical grades. Any guesses as to which magician the RTC cross belongs?
Related Paper: Scientology and the Golden Dawn
 Illustration by Giovanni Caselli The Illustrated Bulfinch's Mythology © 1997 Eddison Sadd Editions
See also http://www.lronhubbard.org/p_jpg/philo1/word2.htm . Scientology clearly associates Hubbard's Excalibur with the legendary sword.
 Note: The same work was published under various
titles as follows:
 See: Hubbard, L. Ron, Dianetics: The Original Thesis (Introduction) © 1970 L. Ron Hubbard
 Carter, John, Sex and Rockets The Occult World of Jack Parsons © 1997 John Carter and Feral House
 Crowley, Aleister, Magick, Book 4 (page 491) © 1997 Ordo Templi Orientis
 Crowley, Aleister, Curriculum, The Equinox No. XI
 Crowley, Aleister, One Star in Sight
 Hubbard, L. Ron, Modern Management Technology
Defined © 1976 L. Ron Hubbard
[9a] Line dreawing: Modifed from image at
See also: Scientology and The Golden Dawn.
 Hubbard, L. Ron, Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary © 1983 L. Ron Hubbard
 Image from Magick, Book 4, by Aleister Crowley © 1997 Ordo Templi Orientis (modified)
 Eshelman, James A., The Mystical and Magical System of the A.A. © 2000 James Eshelman
 Hubbard, L. Ron, Introduction to Scientology Ethics © 1998 L. Ron Hubbard Library
 Crowley, Aleister, Magick, Book 4 (page 491) © 1997 Ordo Templi Orientis
 See Mission Into Time by L. Ron Hubbard
 From The Key of Solomon the King, by S. Liddell MacGregor Mathers © 1999 The Book Tree
 Crowley, Aleister, Magick, Book 4 © 1997
Ordo Templi Orientis
 Crowley, Aleister, Magick, Book 4 © 1997 Ordo Templi Orientis